Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
VARYING IN THE
GIVEN TO THE
COME UNTO A
1. Translate, according to the Greek order, "I beseech you,
therefore (seeing that such is your calling of grace, the first through
third chapters) I the prisoner in the Lord
(that is, imprisoned in the Lord's cause)." What the world counted
ignominy, he counts the highest honor, and he glories in his bonds for
Christ, more than a king in his diadem [THEODORET].
His bonds, too, are an argument which should enforce his exhortation.
vocation--Translate, "calling" to accord, as the Greek does, with
Ro 8:28, 30).
similarly grounds Christian duties on our Christian "calling." The
exhortations of this part of the Epistle are built on the conscious
enjoyment of the privileges mentioned in the former part. Compare
with Eph 1:7;
with Eph 1:5;
with Eph 1:13;
with Eph 1:8.
2, 3. lowliness--In classic Greek, the meaning is
meanness of spirit: the Gospel has elevated the word to express a
Christian grace, namely, the esteeming of ourselves small, inasmuch as
we are so; the thinking truly, and because truly, therefore lowlily, of
meekness--that spirit in which we accept God's dealings with us
without disputing and resisting; and also the accepting patiently of the
injuries done us by men, out of the thought that they are permitted by
God for the chastening and purifying of His people
It is only the lowly, humble heart that is also meek
As "lowliness and meekness" answer to "forbearing one another in love"
Eph 4:15, 16),
so "long-suffering" answers to
"endeavoring (Greek, 'earnestly' or 'zealously giving
diligence') to keep (maintain) the unity of the Spirit (the unity
between men of different tempers, which flows from the presence of the
Spirit, who is Himself 'one,'
in (united in) the bond of peace" (the "bond" by which "peace" is
maintained, namely, "love,"
Col 3:14, 15
[BENGEL]; or, "peace" itself is the "bond" meant,
uniting the members of the Church [ALFORD]).
4. In the apostle's creed, the article as to
CHURCH properly follows that as to
GHOST. To the Trinity naturally is annexed the
Church, as the house to its tenant, to God His temple, the state to its
founder [AUGUSTINE, Enchiridion, c. 15].
There is yet to be a Church, not merely potentially, but actually
catholic or world-wide; then the Church and the world will be
co-extensive. Rome falls into inextricable error by setting up a mere
man as a visible head, antedating that consummation which Christ, the
true visible Head, at His appearing shall first realize. As the "SPIRIT" is mentioned here, so the "LORD" (Jesus),
and "GOD the Father,"
Thus the Trinity is again set forth.
hope--here associated with "the Spirit," which is the "earnest
of our inheritance"
(Eph 1:13, 14).
As "faith" is mentioned,
so "hope" here, and "love,"
The Holy Spirit, as the common higher principle of life
(Eph 2:18, 22),
gives to the Church its true unity. Outward uniformity is as yet
unattainable; but beginning by having one mind, we shall hereafter end
by having "one body." The true "body" of Christ (all believers of every
age) is already "one," as joined to the one Head. But its unity is as
yet not visible, even as the Head is not visible; but it shall appear
when He shall appear
Meanwhile the rule is, "In essentials, unity; in doubtful questions,
liberty; in all things, charity." There is more real unity where both
go to heaven under different names than when with the same name one
goes to heaven, the other to hell. Truth is the first thing: those who
reach it, will at last reach unity, because truth is one; while
those who seek unity as the first thing, may purchase it at the
sacrifice of truth, and so of the soul itself.
of your calling--the one "hope" flowing from our "calling," is the
element "IN" which we are "called" to live. Instead of privileged
classes, as the Jews under the law, a unity of dispensation was
henceforth to be the common privilege of Jew and Gentile alike.
Spirituality, universality, and unity, were designed to characterize
the Church; and it shall be so at last
(Isa 2:2-4; 11:9, 13;
5. Similarly "faith" and "baptism" (the sacramental seal of faith)
"Faith" is not here that which we believe, but the act of
believing, the mean by which we apprehend the "one Lord."
"Baptism" is specified, being the sacrament whereby we are
incorporated into the "one body." Not the Lord's Supper, which
is an act of matured communion on the part of those already
incorporate, "a symbol of union, not of unity" [ELLICOTT]. In
where a breach of union was in question, it forms the rallying point
[ALFORD]. There is not added, "One pope, one
council, one form of government" [Cautions for Times]. The
Church is one in unity of faith
unity of origination
unity of sacraments
1Co 10:17; 12:13):
unity of "hope"
unity of charity
unity (not uniformity) of discipline and
government: for where there is no order, no ministry with Christ as
the Head, there is no Church [PEARSON,
Exposition of the Creed, Article IX].
6. above--"over all." The "one God over all" (in His
sovereignty and by His grace) is the grand source and crowning apex of
through all--by means of Christ "who filleth all things"
(Eph 4:10; 2:20, 21),
and is "a propitiation" for all men
in you all--The oldest manuscripts omit "you." Many of the oldest
versions and Fathers and old manuscripts read, "in us all." Whether
the pronoun be read or not, it must be understood (either from the "ye,"
or from the "us,"
for other parts of Scripture prove that the Spirit is not "in all" men,
but only in believers
(Ro 8:9, 14).
God is "Father" both by generation (as Creator) and regeneration
Jas 1:17, 18;
7. But--Though "one" in our common connection with "one Lord, one
faith, &c., one God," yet "each one of us" has assigned to him his own
particular gift, to be used for the good of the whole: none is
overlooked; none therefore can be dispensed with for the edifying of the
A motive to unity
Translate, "Unto each one of us was the grace (which was
bestowed by Christ at His ascension,
given according to," &c.
the measure--the amount "of the gift of Christ"
(Ro 12:3, 6).
8. Wherefore--"For which reason," namely, in order to intimate that
Christ, the Head of the Church, is the author of all these different
gifts, and that giving of them is an act of His "grace" [ESTIUS].
he saith--God, whose word the Scripture is
When he ascended--GOD is meant in the Psalm, represented by the ark,
which was being brought up to Zion in triumph by David, after that "the
Lord had given him rest round about from all his enemies"
Paul quotes it of CHRIST ascending to heaven, who
is therefore GOD.
captivity--that is, a band of captives. In the Psalm, the captive
foes of David. In the antitypical meaning, the foes of Christ the Son of
David, the devil, death, the curse, and sin
led as it were in triumphal procession as a sign of the destruction of
gave gifts unto men--in the Psalm, "received gifts for men,"
Hebrew, "among men," that is, "thou hast received gifts"
to distribute among men. As a conqueror distributes in token of his
triumph the spoils of foes as gifts among his people. The impartation of
the gifts and graces of the Spirit depended on Christ's ascension
(Joh 7:39; 14:12).
Paul stops short in the middle of the verse, and does not quote "that
the Lord God might dwell among them." This, it is true, is
partly fulfilled in Christians being an "habitation of God through the
But the Psalm
refers to "the Lord dwelling in Zion for ever"; the ascension
amidst attendant angels, having as its counterpart the second advent
amidst "thousands of angels"
accompanied by the restoration of Israel
the destruction of God's enemies and the resurrection
(Ps 68:20, 21, 23),
the conversion of the kingdoms of the world to the Lord at Jerusalem
9. Paul reasons that (assuming Him to be God) His ascent
implies a previous descent; and that the language of the Psalm
can only refer to Christ, who first descended, then ascended.
For God the Father does not ascend or descend. Yet the Psalm plainly
refers to God
(Eph 4:8, 17, 18).
It must therefore be GOD THE SON
(Joh 6:33, 62).
As He declares
"No man hath ascended up to heaven, but He that came down from
heaven." Others, though they did not previously descend, have
ascended; but none save Christ can be referred to in the Psalm
as having done so; for it is of God it speaks.
lower parts of the earth--The antithesis or contrast to "far
above all heavens," is the argument of ALFORD and
others, to show that this phrase means more than simply the
earth, namely, the regions beneath it, even as He
ascended not merely to the visible heavens, but "far above" them.
Moreover, His design "that He might fill all things"
Greek, "the whole universe of things") may imply the same. But
on those words. Also the leading "captive" of the "captive hand"
("captivity") of satanic powers, may imply that the warfare reached to
their habitation itself
Christ, as Lord of all, took possession first of the earth the unseen
world beneath it (some conjecture that the region of the lost is in the
central parts of our globe), then of heaven
(Ac 2:27, 28).
However, all we surely know is, that His soul at death descended
to Hades, that is, underwent the ordinary condition of departed spirits
of men. The leading captive of satanic powers here, is not said to be
at His descent, but at His ascension; so that no argument can be
drawn from it for a descent to the abodes of Satan.
Ac 2:27, 28,
and Ro 10:7,
favor the view of the reference being simply to His descent
to Hades. So PEARSON in
Exposition of the Creed
10. all heavens--Greek, "all the heavens"
(Heb 7:26; 4:14),
Greek, "passed through the heavens" to the throne of God
might fill--In Greek, the action is continued to the present time,
both "might" and "may fill," namely, with His divine presence and
Spirit, not with His glorified body. "Christ, as God, is present
everywhere; as glorified man, He can be present anywhere"
11. Greek, emphatical. "Himself" by His supreme power.
"It is HE that gave," &c.
gave some, apostles--Translate, "some to be apostles, and some
to be prophets," &c. The men who filled the office, no less than the
office itself, were a divine gift [EADIE].
Ministers did not give themselves. Compare with the list here,
1Co 12:10, 28.
As the apostles, prophets, and evangelists were special and
extraordinary ministers, so "pastors and teachers" are the ordinary
stated ministers of a particular flock, including, probably, the
bishops, presbyters, and deacons. Evangelists were itinerant preachers
like our missionaries, as Philip the deacon
as contrasted with stationary "pastors and teachers"
The evangelist founded the Church; the teacher built it
up in the faith already received. The "pastor" had the outward
rule and guidance of the Church: the bishop. As to
revelation, the "evangelist" testified infallibly of the past; the
"prophet," infallibly of the future. The prophet derived all from the
Spirit; the evangelist, in the special case of the Four, recorded
matter of fact, cognizable to the senses, under the Spirit's guidance.
No one form of Church polity as permanently unalterable is laid
down in the New Testament though the apostolical order of bishops, or
presbyters, and deacons, superintended by higher overseers (called
bishops after the apostolic times), has the highest sanction of
primitive usage. In the case of the Jews, a fixed model of hierarchy
and ceremonial unalterably bound the people, most minutely detailed in
the law. In the New Testament, the absence of minute directions for
Church government and ceremonies, shows that a fixed model was not
designed; the general rule is obligatory as to ceremonies, "Let
all things be done decently and in order" (compare Article XXXIV,
Church of England); and that a succession of ministers be provided, not
self-called, but "called to the work by men who have public authority
given unto them in the congregation, to call and send ministers into
the Lord's vineyard" [Article XXIII]. That the "pastors" here were the
bishops and presbyters of the Church, is evident from
1Pe 5:1, 2,
where the bishops' and presbyters' office is said to be
"to feed" the flock. The term, "shepherd" or "pastor," is used of
guiding and governing and not merely instructing, whence
it is applied to kings, rather than prophets or priests
Compare the names of princes compounded of "pharnas,"
Hebrew, "pastor," Holophernes, Tis-saphernes (compare
12. For--with a view to; the ultimate aim. "Unto."
perfecting--The Greek implies correcting in all that is
deficient, instructing and completing in number and all parts.
for--a different Greek word; the immediate object. Compare
"Let every one . . . please his neighbor for his good
the ministry--Greek, "ministration"; without the article.
The office of the ministry is stated in this verse. The good aimed at
in respect to the Church
The way of growth
edifying--that is, building up as the temple of the Holy Ghost.
13. come in--rather, "attain unto." ALFORD
expresses the Greek order, "Until we arrive all of us at the
faith and . . . knowledge--Full unity of faith
is then found, when all alike thoroughly know Christ, the object
of faith, and that in His highest dignity as "the Son of God" [DE WETTE]
(Eph 3:17, 19;
Not even Paul counted himself to have fully "attained"
Amidst the variety of the gifts and the multitude of the Church's
members, its "faith" is to be ONE: as contrasted
with the state of "children carried about with EVERY WIND
perfect man--unto the full-grown man
the maturity of an adult; contrasted with children
Not "perfect men"; for the many members constitute but
one Church joined to the one Christ.
stature, &c.--The standard of spiritual "stature" is "the fulness
of Christ," that is, which Christ has
(Eph 1:23; 3:19;
that the body should be worthy of the Head, the perfect Christ.
14. Translate, "To the end that"; the aim of the bestowal of gifts
stated negatively, as in
it is stated positively.
tossed to and fro--inwardly, even without wind;
like billows of the sea. So the Greek. Compare
carried about--with every wind from without.
doctrine--"teaching." The various teachings are the
"winds" which keep them tossed on a sea of doubts
by--Greek, "in"; expressing "the evil atmosphere in which the
varying currents of doctrine exert their force" [ELLICOTT].
sleight--literally, "dice playing." The player frames his throws of the
dice so that the numbers may turn up which best suit his purpose.
of men--contrasted with Christ
cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to
deceive--Translate as Greek, "craftiness tending to the
methodized system of deceit" ("the schemes of error") [ALFORD]. BENGEL takes "deceit," or
"error," to stand for "the parent of error," Satan (compare
referring to his concealed mode of acting.
15. speaking the truth--Translate, "holding the truth"; "following
the truth"; opposed to "error" or "deceit"
in love--"Truth" is never to be sacrificed to so-called "charity";
yet it is to be maintained in charity. Truth in word and act, love in
manner and spirit, are the Christian's rule (compare
Eph 4:21, 24).
grow up--from the state of "children" to that of "full-grown men."
There is growth only in the spiritually alive, not in the dead.
into him--so as to be more and more incorporated with Him, and
become one with Him.
fitly joined together--"being fitly framed together," as in
all the parts being in their proper position, and in mutual relation.
compacted--implying firm consolidation.
by that which every joint supplieth--Greek, "by means of every
joint of the supply"; joined with "maketh increase of the body," not
with "compacted." "By every ministering (supplying) joint." The joints
are the points of union where the supply passes to the different
members, furnishing the body with the materials of its growth.
(Eph 1:19; 3:7).
According to the effectual working of grace in each member (or
else, rather, "according to each several member's working"),
proportioned to the measure of its need of supply.
every part--Greek, "each one part"; each individual part.
maketh increase--Translate, as the Greek is the same as
"maketh (carrieth on) the growth of the body."
17. therefore--resuming the exhortation which he had begun with, "I
therefore beseech you that ye walk worthy," &c.
testify in the Lord--in whom (as our element) we do all things
pertaining to the ministry
henceforth . . . not--Greek, "no longer"; resumed from
other--Greek, "the rest of the Gentiles."
in the vanity, &c.--as their element: opposed to "in the Lord."
"Vanity of mind" is the waste of the rational powers on worthless
objects, of which idolatry is one of the more glaring instances. The
root of it is departure from the knowledge of the true God
(Eph 4:18, 19;
18. More literally, "Being darkened in their understanding," that is,
their intelligence, or perceptions (compare
1Th 5:4, 5).
alienated--This and "darkened," imply that before the fall they (in
the person of their first father) had been partakers of life and
light: and that they had revolted from the primitive revelation
life of God--that life whereby God lives in His own people: as He
was the life and light in Adam before the irruption of death and
darkness into human nature; and as He is the life in the regenerate
"Spiritual life in believers is kindled from the life itself of God"
through--rather as Greek, "on account of the ignorance,"
namely, of God. Wilful ignorance in the first instance, their fathers
not "choosing to retain God in their knowledge." This is the beginning
point of their misery
Ro 1:21, 23, 28;
because of--"on account of."
blindness--Greek, "hardness," literally, the hardening of the
skin so as not to be sensible of touch. Hence a soul's
callousness to feeling
Where there is spiritual "life" ("the life of God") there is feeling;
where there is not, there is "hardness."
19. past feeling--senseless, shameless, hopeless; the ultimate result
of a long process of "hardening," or habit of sin
"Being past hope," or despairing, is the reading of the Vulgate;
though not so well supported as English Version reading, "past
feeling," which includes the absence of hope
(Jer 2:25; 18:12).
given themselves over--In
it is, "God gave them up to uncleanness." Their giving
themselves to it was punished in kind, God giving them up
to it by withdrawing His preventing grace; their sin thus was made
their punishment. They gave themselves up of their own accord to the
slavery of their lust, to do all its pleasure, as captives who have
ceased to strive with the foe. God gave them up to it, but not
against their will; for they give themselves up to it [ZANCHIUS].
[ALFORD]. So it is translated in
It does not necessarily include lasciviousness; but it means
intemperate, reckless readiness for it, and for every
self-indulgence. "The first beginnings of unchastity" [GROTIUS]. "Lawless insolence, and wanton caprice"
to work all uncleanness--The Greek implies,
"with a deliberate view to the working (as if it were their work or business, not a mere accidental fall into sin) of uncleanness
of every kind."
with greediness--Greek, "in greediness." Uncleanness and
greediness of gain often go hand in hand
(Eph 5:3, 5;
though "greediness" here includes all kinds of
20. learned Christ--
To know Christ Himself, is the great lesson of the Christian life: this
the Ephesians began to learn at their conversion. "Christ," in
reference to His office, is here specified as the object of
learning. "Jesus," in
as the person.
21. If so be that--not implying doubt; assuming what I have no reason
to doubt, that
heard him--The "Him" is emphatic: "heard Himself," not merely
heard about Him.
taught by him--Greek, "taught
HIM," that is, being in vital
union with Him
as the truth is in Jesus--Translate in connection with "taught";
"And in Him have been taught, according as is truth in Jesus." There is
no article in the Greek. "Truth" is therefore used in the most
comprehensive sense, truth in its essence, and highest perfection, in
Jesus; "if according as it is thus in Him, ye have been so taught in
Him"; in contrast to "the vanity of mind of the Gentiles"
Joh 1:14, 17; 18:37).
22. That ye--following "Ye have been taught"
concerning the former conversation--"in respect to your former way of
the old man--your old unconverted nature
is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts--rather, "which is being
corrupted ('perisheth,' compare
'corruption,' that is, destruction) according to (that is, as
might be expected from) the lusts of deceit." Deceit is
personified; lusts are its servants and tools. In contrast to
"the holiness of the truth,"
and "truth in Jesus,"
and answering to Gentile "vanity,"
Corruption and destruction are inseparably associated together. The
man's old-nature-lusts are his own executioners, fitting him more and
more for eternal corruption and death.
23. be renewed--The Greek (ananeousthai) implies
"the continued renewal in the youth of the new man." A different
Greek word (anakainousthai) implies "renewal
from the old state."
in the spirit of your mind--As there is no Greek for "in," which
there is at
"in the vanity of their mind," it is better to translate, "By
the Spirit of your mind," that is, by your new spiritual nature; the
restored and divinely informed leading principle of the mind. The
"spirit" of man in New Testament is only then used in its proper sense,
as worthy of its place and governing functions, when it is one spirit
with the Lord. The natural, or animal man, is described as "not having
[ALFORD]. Spirit is not in this sense attributed
to the unregenerate
24. put on the new man--Opposed to "the old man," which is to be
The Greek here (kainon) is different from that for
Put on not merely a renovated nature, but a new, that is,
altogether different nature, a changed nature (compare
Note,, see on
after God, &c.--Translate, "Which hath been created (once for all:
so the Greek aorist means: in Christ,
so that in each believer it has not to be created again, but to be put
on) after (the image of) God"
&c. God's image in which the first Adam was originally created, is
restored, to us far more gloriously in the second Adam, the image of
the invisible God
in righteousness--"IN" it as the element of the renewed man.
true holiness--rather, as the Greek, "holiness of the
truth"; holiness flowing from sincere following of "the truth of
(Ro 1:25; 3:7; 15:8):
opposed to "the lusts of deceit" (Greek,
"truth is in Jesus."
"Righteousness" is in relation to our fellow men, the second table of
the law; "Holiness," in relation to God, the first table; the religious
observance of offices of piety (compare
In the parallel
it is, "renewed in knowledge after the image," &c. As at
Colosse the danger was from false pretenders to knowledge, the
true "knowledge" which flows from renewal of the heart is dwelt on; so
at Ephesus, the danger being from the corrupt morals prevalent around,
the renewal in "holiness," contrasted with the Gentile "uncleanness"
and "righteousness," in contrast to "greediness," is made
25. Wherefore--From the general character of "the new man," there
will necessarily result the particular features which he now details.
putting away--Greek, "having put away" once for all.
lying--"falsehood": the abstract. "Speak ye truth each one with his
neighbor," is quoted, slightly changed, from
For "to," Paul quotes it "with," to mark our inner connection
with one another, as "members one of another" [STIER]. Not merely members of one body. Union to
one another in Christ, not merely the external command, instinctively
leads Christians to fulfil mutual duties. One member could not injure
or deceive another, without injuring himself, as all have a mutual and
26. Be ye angry, and sin not--So the Septuagint,
Should circumstances arise to call for anger on your part, let it be as
without sin. Our natural feelings are not wrong when directed to their
legitimate object, and when not exceeding due bounds. As in the future
literal, so in the present spiritual, resurrection, no essential
constituent is annihilated, but all that is a perversion of the
original design is removed. Thus indignation at dishonor done to God,
and wrong to man, is justifiable anger. Passion is sinful
(derived from "passio," suffering: implying that amidst
seeming energy, a man is really passive, the slave of his anger,
instead of ruling it).
let not the sun go down upon your wrath--"wrath" is absolutely
forbidden; "anger" not so, though, like poison sometimes used as
medicine, it is to be used with extreme caution. The sense is not, Your
anger shall not be imputed to you if you put it away before
nightfall; but "let no wrath (that is, as the Greek, personal
'irritation' or 'exasperation') mingle with your 'anger,' even though,
the latter be righteous,
[TRENCH, Greek Synonyms of the New Testament].
"Put it away before sunset" (when the Jewish day began), is proverbial
for put it away at once before another day begin
also before you part with your brother for the night, perhaps never in
this world to meet again. So JONA, "Let not night
and anger against anyone sleep with you, but go and conciliate the
other party, though he have been the first to commit the offense." Let
not your "anger" at another's wickedness verge into hatred, or
contempt, or revenge [VATABLUS].
27. Neither give place--that is, occasion, or
scope, to the devil, by continuing in "wrath." The keeping of
anger through the darkness of night, is giving place to the devil, the
prince of darkness
28. Greek, "Let him that stealeth." The imperfect or past tense is, however, mainly meant, though not to the exclusion of the
present. "Let the stealing person steal no more." Bandits frequented
the mountains near Ephesus. Such are meant by those called "thieves" in
the New Testament.
but rather--For it is not enough to cease from a sin, but the sinner
must also enter on the path that is its very opposite
thief, when repentant, should labor more than he would be called on to
do, if he had never stolen.
let him labour--Theft and idleness go together.
the thing which is good--in contrast with theft, the thing which was
evil in his past character.
with his hands--in contrast with his former thievish use of his hands.
that he may have to give--"that he may have wherewith to
impart." He who has stolen should exercise liberality beyond the
restitution of what he has taken. Christians in general should make not
selfish gain their aim in honest industry, but the acquisition of the
means of greater usefulness to their fellow men; and the being
independent of the alms of others. So Paul himself
acted as he taught
29. corrupt--literally, "insipid," without "the salt of grace"
so worthless and then becoming corrupt: included in
Its opposite is "that which is good to edifying."
that which, &c.--Greek, "whatever is good."
use of edifying--literally, "for edifying of the need," that is,
for edifying where it is needed. Seasonably edifying; according as
the occasion and present needs of the hearers require, now censure, at
another time consolation. Even words good in themselves must be
introduced seasonably lest by our fault they prove injurious instead of
useful. TRENCH explains, Not vague generalities, which would suit a
thousand other cases equally well, and probably equally ill: our words
should be as nails fastened in a sure place, words suiting the present
time and the present person, being "for the edifying of the occasion"
minister--Greek, "give." The word spoken "gives grace to the
hearers" when God uses it as His instrument for that purpose.
30. grieve not--A condescension to human modes of thought most
touching. Compare "vexed His Holy Spirit"
implying His tender love to us); and of hardened unbelievers, "resist
the Holy Ghost"
This verse refers to believers, who grieve the Spirit by
inconsistencies such as in the context are spoken of, corrupt or
worthless conversation, &c.
whereby ye are sealed--rather, "wherein (or 'in whom') ye
were sealed." As in
believers are said to be sealed "in" Christ, so here "in
the Holy Spirit," who is one with Christ, and who reveals Christ
in the soul: the Greek implies that the sealing was done already
once for all. It is the Father "BY" whom
believers, as well as the Son Himself, were sealed
The Spirit is represented as itself the seal
for the image employed, see on
Here the Spirit is the element IN
which the believer is sealed, His gracious influences being the
unto--kept safely against the day of redemption, namely, of the
completion of redemption in the deliverance of the body as well as
the soul from all sin and sorrow
31. bitterness--both of spirit and of speech: opposed to "kind."
wrath--passion for a time: opposed to "tender-hearted." Whence
BENGEL translates for "wrath," harshness.
anger--lasting resentment: opposed to "forgiving one another."
clamour--compared by CHRYSOSTOM to a horse carrying anger for its
rider: "Bridle the horse, and you dismount its rider." "Bitterness"
begets "wrath"; "wrath," "anger"; "anger," "clamor"; and "clamor," the
more chronic "evil-speaking," slander, insinuations, and surmises of
evil. "Malice" is the secret root of all: "fires fed within, and not
appearing to by-standers from without, are the most formidable"
even as--God hath shown Himself "kind, tender-hearted, and forgiving
to you"; it is but just that you in turn shall be so to your fellow men,
who have not erred against you in the degree that you have erred against
God for Christ's sake--rather as Greek, "God in Christ"
It is in Christ that God vouchsafes forgiveness to us. It cost
God the death of His Son, as man, to forgive us. It costs us nothing to
forgive our fellow man.
hath forgiven--rather as Greek, "forgave you." God has,
once for all, forgiven sin in Christ, as a past historical fact.