Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
REPROOF OF THE
SUBSEQUENT TO THE
1. that ye should not obey the truth--omitted in the oldest
bewitched--fascinated you so that you have lost your wits.
says the Galatians were naturally very acute in intellect. Hence, Paul
wonders they could be so misled in this case.
you--emphatical. "You, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been
graphically set forth (literally, in writing, namely, by vivid
portraiture in preaching) among you, crucified" (so the sense
and Greek order require rather than English Version). As
Christ was "crucified," so ye ought to have been by faith
"crucified with Christ," and so "dead to the law"
(Ga 2:19, 20).
Reference to the "eyes" is appropriate, as fascination was
supposed to be exercised through the eyes. The sight of Christ
crucified ought to have been enough to counteract all fascination.
2. "Was it by the works of the law that ye received the Spirit
(manifested by outward miracles,
and by spiritual graces,
Ga 4:5, 6;
or by the hearing of faith?" The "only" implies, "I desire, omitting
other arguments, to rest the question on this alone"; I who was
your teacher, desire now to "learn" this one thing from you. The
epithet "Holy" is not prefixed to "Spirit" because that epithet is a
joyous one, whereas this Epistle is stern and reproving [BENGEL].
hearing of faith--Faith consists not in working, but in
(Ro 10:16, 17).
3. begun--the Christian life
in the Spirit--Not merely was Christ crucified "graphically set
forth" in my preaching, but also "the Spirit" confirmed the word
preached, by imparting His spiritual gifts. "Having thus begun" with the
receiving His spiritual gifts, "are ye now being made perfect"
(so the Greek), that is, are ye seeking to be made perfect with
"fleshly" ordinances of the law? [ESTIUS]. Compare
Having begun in the Spirit, that is, the Holy Spirit ruling your
spiritual life as its "essence and active principle" [ELLICOTT], in contrast to "the flesh," the element in
which the law works [ALFORD]. Having begun your
Christianity in the Spirit, that is, in the divine life that proceeds
from faith, are ye seeking after something higher still (the perfecting
of your Christianity) in the sensuous and the earthly, which cannot
possibly elevate the inner life of the Spirit, namely, outward
ceremonies? [NEANDER]. No doubt the Galatians
thought that they were going more deeply into the Spirit; for the flesh
may be easily mistaken for the Spirit, even by those who have made
progress, unless they continue to maintain a pure faith [BENGEL].
4. Have ye suffered so many things--namely, persecution from Jews and
from unbelieving fellow countrymen, incited by the Jews, at the time of
in vain--fruitlessly, needlessly, since ye might have avoided them
by professing Judaism [GROTIUS]. Or, shall ye, by falling from grace,
lose the reward promised for all your sufferings, so that they shall be
1Co 15:2, 17-19, 29-32;
yet--rather, "If it be really (or 'indeed') in vain"
"If, as it must be, what I have said, 'in vain,' is really the fact"
[ALFORD]. I prefer understanding it as a mitigation of the preceding
words. I hope better things of you, for I trust you will return from
legalism to grace; if so, as I confidently expect, you will not have
"suffered so many things in vain" [ESTIUS]. For "God has given you the
Spirit and has wrought mighty works among you"
5. He . . . that ministereth--or "supplieth," God
He who supplied and supplies to you the Spirit still, to
the present time. These miracles do not prove grace to be in the heart
(Mr 9:38, 39).
He speaks of these miracles as a matter of unquestioned
notoriety among those addressed; an undesigned proof of their
worketh miracles among you--rather, "IN you," as
at your conversion and since [ALFORD].
doeth he it by the works of the law--that is, as a consequence
resulting from (so the Greek) the works of the law
This cannot be because the law was then unknown to you when you
received those gifts of the Spirit.
6. The answer to the question in
is here taken for granted, It was by the hearing of faith:
following this up, he says, "Even as Abraham believed," &c.
God supplies unto you the Spirit as the result of faith, not works,
just as Abraham obtained justification by faith, not by works
(Ga 3:6, 8, 16;
Ga 4:22, 26, 28).
Where justification is, there the Spirit is, so that if the former
comes by faith, the latter must also.
7. they which are of faith--as the source and starting-point of their
spiritual life. The same phrase is in the Greek of
the same--these, and these alone, to the exclusion of all the
other descendants of Abraham.
8. And--Greek, "Moreover."
foreseeing--One great excellency of Scripture is, that in it all
points liable ever to be controverted, are, with prescient wisdom,
decided in the most appropriate language.
would justify--rather, "justifieth." Present indicative. It is now,
and at all times, God's one way of justification.
the heathen--rather, "the Gentiles"; or "the nations," as the same
Greek is translated at the end of the verse. God justifieth the
Jews, too, "by faith, not by works." But he specifies the Gentiles in particular here, as it was their case that was in question, the
Galatians being Gentiles.
preached before the gospel--"announced beforehand the Gospel." For
the "promise" was substantially the Gospel by anticipation. Compare
A proof that "the old fathers did not look only for transitory
promises" [Article VII, Church of England]. Thus the Gospel, in its
essential germ, is older than the law though the full development of
the former is subsequent to the latter.
In thee--not "in thy seed," which is a point not here raised; but
strictly "in thee," as followers of thy faith, it having first shown the
way to justification before God [ALFORD]; or "in thee," as Father of the
promised seed, namely, Christ
who is the Object of faith
and imitating thy faith (see on
all nations--or as above, "all the Gentiles"
(Ge 12:3; 18:18; 22:18).
be blessed--an act of grace, not something earned by works. The
blessing of justification was to Abraham by faith in the promise, not by
works. So to those who follow Abraham, the father of the faithful, the
blessing, that is, justification, comes purely by faith in Him who is
the subject of the promise.
9. they--and they alone.
of faith--(See on
faithful--implying what it is in which they are "blessed together with
him," namely, faith, the prominent feature of his character, and of
which the result to all who like him have it, is justification.
10. Confirmation of
They who depend on the works of the law cannot share the blessing, for
they are under the curse "written,"
Septuagint. PERFECT obedience is
required by the words, "in all things." CONTINUAL
obedience by the word, "continueth." No man renders this
Ro 3:19, 20).
It is observable, Paul quotes Scripture to the Jews who were conversant
with it, as in Epistle to the Hebrews, as said or spoken;
but to the Gentiles, as written. So Matthew, writing for Jews,
quotes it as "said," or "spoken"; Mark and Luke, writing for Gentiles,
Lu 2:22, 23)
11. by the law--Greek, "IN the law."
Both in and by are included. The syllogism in this verse
is, according to Scripture, "The just shall live by faith." But the law
is not of faith, but of doing, or works (that is, does not make faith,
but works, the conditional ground of justifying). Therefore "in," or
"by the law, no man is justified before God" (whatever the case may be
--not even if he could, which he cannot, keep the law, because the
Scripture element and conditional mean of justification is
The just shall live by faith--
Not as BENGEL and ALFORD, "He
who is just by faith shall live." The Greek supports English
Version. Also the contrast is between "live by faith"
(namely, as the ground and source of his justification), and "live
in them," namely, in his doings or works
as the conditional element wherein he is justified.
12. doeth--Many depended on the law although they did not keep it; but
without doing, saith Paul, it is of no use to them
(Ro 2:13, 17, 23; 10:5).
13. Abrupt exclamation, as he breaks away impatiently from those
who would involve us again in the curse of the law, by seeking
justification in it, to "Christ," who "has redeemed us from its
curse." The "us" refers primarily to the Jews, to whom the law
principally appertained, in contrast to "the Gentiles"
Ga 4:3, 4).
But it is not restricted solely to the Jews, as ALFORD thinks; for these are the representative people of
the world at large, and their "law" is the embodiment of what God
requires of the whole world. The curse of its non-fulfilment affects
the Gentiles through the Jews; for the law represents that
righteousness which God requires of all, and which, since the Jews
failed to fulfil, the Gentiles are equally unable to fulfil.
"As many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse," refers
plainly, not to the Jews only, but to all, even Gentiles (as the
Galatians), who seek justification by the law. The Jews' law represents
the universal law which condemned the Gentiles, though with less clear
consciousness on their part
The revelation of God's "wrath" by the law of conscience, in some
degree prepared the Gentiles for appreciating redemption through Christ
when revealed. The curse had to be removed from off the heathen, too,
as well as the Jews, in order that the blessing, through Abraham, might
flow to them. Accordingly, the "we," in "that we might receive
the promise of the Spirit," plainly refers to both Jews and Gentiles.
redeemed us--bought us off from our former bondage
and "from the curse" under which all lie who trust to the law and the
works of the law for justification. The Gentile Galatians, by putting
themselves under the law, were involving themselves in the curse from
which Christ has redeemed the Jews primarily, and through them the
Gentiles. The ransom price He paid was His own precious blood
(1Pe 1:18, 19;
1Co 6:20; 7:23;
being made--Greek, "having become."
a curse for us--Having become what we were, in our behalf, "a
curse," that we might cease to be a curse. Not merely accursed (in
the concrete), but a curse in the abstract,
bearing the universal curse of the whole human race. So
"Sin for us," not sinful, but bearing the whole sin of our race,
regarded as one vast aggregate of sin. See Note there. "Anathema"
means "set apart to God," to His glory, but to the person's own
destruction. "Curse," an execration.
Christ's bearing the particular curse of hanging on the tree, is
a sample of the "general" curse which He representatively bore. Not
that the Jews put to death malefactors by hanging; but after
having put them to death otherwise, in order to brand them with
peculiar ignominy, they hung the bodies on a tree, and such
malefactors were accursed by the law (compare
Ac 5:30; 10:39).
God's providence ordered it so that to fulfil the prophecy of the curse
and other prophecies, Jesus should be crucified, and so hang on
the tree, though that death was not a Jewish mode of execution. The
Jews accordingly, in contempt, call Him Tolvi, "the
hanged one," and Christians, "worshippers of the hanged one";
and make it their great objection that He died the accursed death
[TRYPHO, in Justin Martyr, p. 249]
Hung between heaven and earth as though unworthy of either!
14. The intent of "Christ becoming a curse for us"; "To the end that
upon the Gentiles the blessing of Abraham (that is, promised to Abraham, namely, justification by faith) might come in Christ Jesus"
that we might receive the promise of the Spirit--the promised Spirit
(Joe 2:28, 29;
This clause follows not the clause immediately preceding (for our
receiving the Spirit is not the result of the blessing of
Abraham coming on the Gentiles), but "Christ hath redeemed us," &c.
through faith--not by works. Here he resumes the thought in
"The Spirit from without, kindles within us some spark of faith Whereby
we lay hold of Christ, and even of the Spirit Himself, that He may
dwell within us" [FLACIUS].
15. I speak after the manner of men--I take an illustration from a
merely human transaction of everyday occurrence.
but a man's covenant--whose purpose it is far less important to
if it be confirmed--when once it hath been ratified.
no man disannulleth--"none setteth aside," not even the author
himself, much less any second party. None does so who acts in common
equity. Much less would the righteous God do so. The law is here,
by personification, regarded as a second person, distinct from, and
subsequent to, the promise of God. The promise is everlasting, and
more peculiarly belongs to God. The law is regarded as something
extraneous, afterwards introduced, exceptional and temporary
(Ga 3:17-19, 21-24).
addeth--None addeth new conditions "making" the covenant "of none
So legal Judaism could make no alteration in the fundamental relation
between God and man, already established by the promises to Abraham; it
could not add as a new condition the observance of the law, in which
case the fulfilment of the promise would be attached to a condition
impossible for man to perform. The "covenant" here is one of free
grace, a promise afterwards carried into effect in the
16. This verse is parenthetical. The covenant of promise was not
"spoken" (so Greek for "made") to Abraham alone, but "to Abraham and
his seed"; to the latter especially; and this means Christ (and that
which is inseparable from Him, the literal Israel, and
the spiritual, His body, the Church). Christ not having come when
the law was given, the covenant could not have been then fulfilled, but
awaited the coming of Him, the Seed, to whom it was spoken.
promises--plural, because the same promise was often repeated
(Ge 12:3, 7; 15:5, 18; 17:7; 22:18),
and because it involved many things; earthly blessings to the literal
children of Abraham in Canaan, and spiritual and heavenly blessings to
his spiritual children; but both promised to Christ, "the Seed" and
representative Head of the literal and spiritual Israel alike. In the
spiritual seed there is no distinction of Jew or Greek; but to
the literal seed, the promises still in part remain to be fulfilled
The covenant was not made with "many" seeds (which if there had been, a
pretext might exist for supposing there was one seed before the law,
another under the law; and that those sprung from one seed, say the
Jewish, are admitted on different terms, and with a higher degree of
acceptability, than those sprung from the Gentile seed), but with the
one seed; therefore, the promise that in Him "all the families of the
earth shall be blessed"
joins in this one Seed, Christ, Jew and Gentile, as fellow heirs on the
same terms of acceptability, namely, by grace through faith
not to some by promise, to others by the law, but to all alike,
circumcised and uncircumcised, constituting but one seed in Christ
The law, on the other hand, contemplates the Jews and Gentiles as
distinct seeds. God makes a covenant, but it is one of promise; whereas
the law is a covenant of works. Whereas the law brings in a mediator, a
(Ga 3:19, 20),
God makes His covenant of promise with the one seed, Christ
and embraces others only as they are identified with, and represented
one . . . Christ--not in the exclusive sense, the man Christ
Jesus, but "Christ" (Jesus is not added, which would limit the meaning),
including His people who are part of Himself, the Second Adam,
and Head of redeemed humanity.
Ga 3:28, 29
prove this, "Ye are all ONE in Christ Jesus"
(Jesus is added here as the person is indicated). "And if ye be
Christ's, ye are Abraham's SEED, heirs according
to the promise."
17. this I say--"this is what I mean," by what I said in
continued . . . of God--"ratified by God"
in Christ--rather, "unto Christ" (compare
However, Vulgate and the old Italian versions translate as
English Version. But the oldest manuscripts omit the words
the law which was--Greek, "which came into existence four hundred
thirty years after"
(Ex 12:40, 41).
He does not, as in the case of "the covenant," add "enacted by
The dispensation of "the promise" began with the call of Abraham from
Ur into Canaan, and ended on the last night of his grandson Jacob's
sojourn in Canaan, the land of promise. The dispensation of the
law, which engenders bondage, was beginning to draw on from the time of
his entrance into Egypt, the land of bondage. It was to Christ in him,
as in his grandfather Abraham, and his father Isaac, not to him or them
as persons, the promise was spoken. On the day following the last
repetition of the promise orally
at Beer-sheba, Israel passed into Egypt. It is from the end, not from
the beginning of the dispensation of promise, that the interval of four
hundred thirty years between it and the law is to be counted. At
Beer-sheba, after the covenant with Abimelech, Abraham called on the
everlasting God, and the well was confirmed to him and his seed as an
everlasting possession. Here God appeared to Isaac. Here Jacob
received the promise of the blessing, for which God had called Abraham
out of Ur, repeated for the last time, on the last night of his sojourn
in the land of promise.
cannot--Greek, "doth not disannul."
make . . . of none effect--The promise would become
so, if the power of conferring the inheritance be transferred from it
to the law
18. the inheritance--all the blessings to be inherited by Abraham's
literal and spiritual children, according to the promise made to him and
to his Seed, Christ, justification and glorification
but God, &c.--The Greek order requires rather, "But to Abraham
it was by promise that God hath given it." The conclusion is,
Therefore the inheritance is not of, or from the law
19. "Wherefore then serveth the law?" as it is of no avail for
justification, is it either useless, or contrary to the covenant of God?
added--to the original covenant of promise. This is not
"No man addeth thereto"; for there the kind of addition meant,
and therefore denied, is one that would add new conditions,
inconsistent with the grace of the covenant of promise. The law, though
misunderstood by the Judaizers as doing so, was really added for a
different purpose, namely, "because of (or as the Greek, 'for
the sake of') the transgressions," that is, to bring out into clearer
view the transgressions of it
to make men more fully conscious of their "sins," by being perceived as
transgressions of the law, and so to make them long for the
promised Saviour. This accords with
Ga 3:23, 24;
The meaning can hardly be "to check transgressions," for the law
rather stimulates the corrupt heart to disobey it
(Ro 5:20; 7:13).
till the seed--during the period up to the time when the seed
came. The law was a preparatory dispensation for the Jewish nation
Greek, "the law came in additionally and
incidentally"), intervening between the promise and its
fulfilment in Christ.
come--(Compare "faith came,"
ordained--Greek, "constituted" or "disposed."
by angels--as the instrumental enactors of the law
delegated the law to angels as something rather alien to Him and severe
Heb 2:2, 3;
"He came with ten thousands of saints," that is, angels,
He reserved "the promise" to Himself and dispensed it according to His
in the hand of a mediator--namely, Moses.
"I stood between the Lord and you": the very definition of a
mediator. Hence the phrase often recurs, "By the hand of Moses." In the
giving of the law, the "angels" were representatives of God; Moses, as
mediator, represented the people.
20. "Now a mediator cannot be of one (but must be of two parties
whom he mediates between);
but God is one" (not two: owing to His
essential unity not admitting of an intervening party between Him
and those to be blessed; but as the ONE Sovereign, His own
representative, giving the blessing directly by promise to
Abraham, and, in its fulfilment, to Christ, "the Seed," without new
condition, and without a mediator such as the law had). The conclusion
understood is, Therefore a mediator cannot appertain to God; and
consequently, the law, with its inseparable appendage of a mediator,
cannot be the normal way of dealing of God, the one, and unchangeable
God, who dealt with Abraham by direct promise, as a sovereign, not
as one forming a compact with another party, with conditions and a
mediator attached thereto. God would bring man into immediate communion
with Him, and not have man separated from Him by a mediator that keeps
back from access, as Moses and the legal priesthood did
(Ex 19:12, 13, 17, 21-24;
The law that thus interposed a mediator and conditions between man and
God, was an exceptional state limited to the Jews, and parenthetically
preparatory to the Gospel, God's normal mode of dealing, as He dealt
with Abraham, namely, face to face directly; by promise
and grace, and not conditions; to all nations united by
faith in the one seed
(Eph 2:14, 16, 18),
and not to one people to the exclusion and severance from the ONE common Father, of all other nations. It is no
objection to this view, that the Gospel, too, has a mediator
For Jesus is not a mediator separating the two parties in the covenant
of promise or grace, as Moses did, but ONE in both
nature and office with both God and man (compare "God in
representing the whole universal manhood
(1Co 15:22, 45, 47),
and also bearing in Him "all the fulness of the Godhead." Even His
mediatorial office is to cease when its purpose of reconciling all
things to God shall have been accomplished
and God's ONENESS
as "all in all," shall be fully manifested. Compare
where the two mediators--Moses, the severing mediator of legal
conditions, and Jesus, the uniting mediator of grace--are contrasted.
The Jews began their worship by reciting the Schemah, opening
thus, "Jehovah our God is ONE Jehovah"; which
words their Rabbis (as JARCHIUS) interpret as
teaching not only the unity of God, but the future universality of
His Kingdom on earth
infers the same truth from the ONENESS of God
He, as being One, unites all believers, without distinction, to Himself
(Ga 3:8, 16, 28;
Eph 1:10; 2:14;
in direct communion. The unity of God involves the unity of the people
of God, and also His dealing directly without intervention of a
21. "Is the law (which involves a mediator) against the promises
of God (which are without a mediator, and rest on God alone and
immediately)? God forbid."
life--The law, as an externally prescribed rule, can never internally
impart spiritual life to men naturally dead in sin, and change the
disposition. If the law had been a law capable of giving life, "verily (in very reality, and not in the mere fancy of legalists)
righteousness would have been by the law (for where life is, there
righteousness, its condition, must also be)." But the law does not
pretend to give life, and therefore not righteousness; so there is
no opposition between the law and the promise. Righteousness can only
come through the promise to Abraham, and through its fulfilment in the
Gospel of grace.
22. But--as the law cannot give life or righteousness
the "But" means, So far is righteousness from being of the law, that
the knowledge of sin is rather what comes of the law [BENGEL].
the scripture--which began to be written after the time of the promise,
at the time when the law was given. The written letter was needed SO
as PERMANENTLY to convict man of disobedience to God's command.
Therefore he says, "the Scripture," not the "Law." Compare
"Scripture," for "the God of the Scripture."
concluded--"shut up," under condemnation, as in a prison. Compare
"As prisoners gathered in the pit and shut up in the prison."
Beautifully contrasted with "the liberty wherewith Christ makes free,"
Ga 3:7, 9, 25, 26; 5:1;
all--Greek neuter, "the universe of things": the whole
world, man, and all that appertains to him.
(Ro 3:9, 19; 11:32).
the promise--the inheritance promised
by faith of Jesus Christ--that is which is by faith in Jesus Christ.
might be given--The emphasis is on "given": that it might be a free
gift; not something earned by the works of the law
to them that believe--to them that have "the faith of (in) Jesus
Christ" just spoken of.
23. faith--namely, that just mentioned
of which Christ is the object.
kept--Greek, "kept in ward": the effect of the "shutting up"
unto--"with a view to the faith," &c. We were, in a manner, morally
forced to it, so that there remained to us no refuge but faith. Compare
which should afterwards, &c.--"which was afterwards to be revealed."
24. "So that the law hath been (that is, hath
turned out to be) our schoolmaster
(or "tutor," literally, "pedagogue": this term, among the Greeks, meant
a faithful servant entrusted with the care of the boy from childhood to
puberty, to keep him from evil, physical and moral, and accompany him
to his amusements and studies) to guide us unto Christ," with whom we
are no longer "shut up" in bondage, but are freemen. "Children"
(literally, infants) need such tutoring
might be--rather, "that we may be justified by faith"; which we
could not be till Christ, the object of faith, had come. Meanwhile the
law, by outwardly checking the sinful propensity which was constantly
giving fresh proof of its refractoriness--as thus the consciousness of
the power of the sinful principle became more vivid, and hence the sense
of need both of forgiveness of sin and freedom from its bondage was
awakened--the law became a "schoolmaster to guide us unto Christ"
[NEANDER]. The moral law shows us what we ought to do, and so we
learn our inability to do it. In the ceremonial law we seek, by
animal sacrifices, to answer for our not having done it, but find dead
victims no satisfaction for the sins of living men, and that outward
purifying will not cleanse the soul; and that therefore we need an
infinitely better Sacrifice, the antitype of all the legal sacrifices.
Thus delivered up to the judicial law, we see how awful is the doom
we deserve: thus the law at last leads us to Christ, with whom we find
righteousness and peace. "Sin, sin! is the word heard again and
again in the Old Testament. Had it not there for centuries rung in the
ear, and fastened on the conscience, the joyful sound, "grace for
grace," would not have been the watchword of the New Testament. This was
the end of the whole system of sacrifices" [THOLUCK].
25. "But now that faith is come," &c. Moses the lawgiver cannot
bring us into the heavenly Canaan though he can bring us to the border
of it. At that point he is superseded by Joshua, the type of Jesus, who
leads the true Israel into their inheritance. The law leads us to
Christ, and there its office ceases.
26. children--Greek, "sons."
by--Greek, "through faith." "Ye all" (Jews and Gentiles
alike) are no longer "children" requiring a tutor, but SONS
emancipated and walking at liberty.
27. baptized into Christ--
have put on Christ--Ye did, in that very act of being
baptized into Christ, put on, or clothe yourselves with, Christ:
so the Greek expresses. Christ is to you the toga virilis
(the Roman garment of the full-grown man, assumed when ceasing to be a
GATAKER defines a Christian, "One who has put on
Christ." The argument is, By baptism ye have put on Christ; and
therefore, He being the Son of God, ye become sons by adoption, by
virtue of His Sonship by generation. This proves that baptism, where
it answers to its ideal, is not a mere empty sign, but a means of
spiritual transference from the state of legal condemnation to that of
living union with Christ, and of sonship through Him in relation to God
Christ alone can, by baptizing with His Spirit, make the inward grace
correspond to the outward sign. But as He promises the blessing in the
faithful use of the means, the Church has rightly presumed, in charity,
that such is the case, nothing appearing to the contrary.
28. There is in this sonship by faith in Christ, no class privileged
above another, as the Jews under the law had been above the Gentiles
bond nor free--Christ alike belongs to both by faith; whence he
puts "bond" before "free." Compare Note, see on
1Co 7:21, 22;
neither male nor female--rather, as Greek, "there is
not male and female." There is no distinction into male
and female. Difference of sex makes no difference in Christian
privileges. But under the law the male sex had great privileges. Males
alone had in their body circumcision, the sign of the covenant
(contrast baptism applied to male and female alike); they alone
were capable of being kings and priests, whereas all of either sex are
now "kings and priests unto God"
they had prior right to inheritances. In the resurrection the relation
of the sexes shall cease
one--Greek, "one man"; masculine, not neuter, namely "one new
man" in Christ
29. and heirs--The oldest manuscripts omit "and." Christ is "Abraham's
ye are "one in Christ"
and one with Christ, as having "put on Christ"
therefore YE are "Abraham's seed," which is
tantamount to saying (whence the "and" is omitted), ye are "heirs
according to the promise" (not "by the law,"
for it was to Abraham's seed that the inheritance was promised
Thus he arrives at the same truth which he set out with
But one new "seed" of a righteous succession could be found. One single
faultless grain of human nature was found by God Himself, the source of
a new and imperishable seed: "the seed"
who receive from Him a new nature and name
Isa 53:10, 11;
In Him the lineal descent from David becomes extinct. He died without
posterity. But He lives and shall reign on David's throne. No one has a
legal claim to sit upon it but Himself, He being the only living direct
His spiritual seed derive their birth from the travail of His soul,
being born again of His word, which is the incorruptible seed