Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on the Whole Bible
1. Where . . . mothers divorcement--Zion is "the mother"; the Jews
are the children; and God the Husband and Father
(Isa 54:5; 62:5;
GESENIUS thinks that God means by the question to
deny that He had given "a bill of divorcement" to her, as was
often done on slight pretexts by a husband
or that He had "sold" His and her "children," as a poor parent
under pressure of his "creditors"; that it was they who sold themselves
through their own sins. MAURER explains,
"Show the bill of your mother's divorcement, whom
. . . ; produce the creditors to whom ye have been sold; so
it will be seen that it was not from any caprice of Mine, but through
your own fault, your mother has been put away, and you sold"
HORSLEY best explains (as the antithesis between
"I" and "yourselves" shows, though LOWTH
translates, "Ye are sold") I have never given your mother
a regular bill of divorcement; I have merely "put her away" for a time,
and can, therefore, by right as her husband still take her back on her
submission; I have not made you, the children, over to any "creditor"
to satisfy a debt; I therefore still have the right of a father over
you, and can take you back on repentance, though as rebellious children
you have sold yourselves to sin and its penalty
bill . . . whom--rather, "the bill with which I
have put her away" [MAURER].
no man--willing to believe in and obey Me
(Isa 52:1, 3).
The same Divine Person had "come" by His prophets in the Old Testament
(appealing to them, but in vain,
Jer 7:25, 26),
who was about to come under the New Testament.
hand shortened--the Oriental emblem of weakness, as the long
stretched-out hand is of power
Notwithstanding your sins, I can still "redeem" you from your bondage
dry up . . . sea--
The second exodus shall exceed, while it resembles in wonders, the
(Isa 11:11, 15; 51:15).
make . . . rivers . . . wilderness--turn the prosperity of Israel's
foes into adversity.
fish stinketh--the very judgment inflicted on their Egyptian enemies
at the first exodus
(Ex 7:18, 21).
3. heavens . . . blackness--another of the judgments on Egypt to be
repeated hereafter on the last enemy of God's people
4. Messiah, as "the servant of Jehovah"
declares that the office has been assigned to Him of encouraging the
"weary" exiles of Israel by "words in season" suited to their case; and
that, whatever suffering it is to cost Himself, He does not shrink from
(Isa 50:5, 6),
for that He knows His cause will triumph at last
(Isa 50:7, 8).
learned--not in mere human learning, but in divinely taught modes of
instruction and eloquence
Mt 7:28, 29; 13:54).
speak a word in season--
(Pr 15:23; 25:11).
Literally, "to succor by words," namely, in their season of need, the
"weary" dispersed ones of Israel
Also, the spiritual "weary"
wakeneth morning by morning, &c.--Compare "daily rising up early"
The image is drawn from a master wakening his pupils early for
wakeneth . . . ear--prepares me for receiving His divine instructions.
as the learned--as one taught by Him. He "learned obedience,"
experimentally, "by the things which He suffered"; thus gaining that
practical learning which adapted Him for "speaking a word in season"
to suffering men
5. opened . . .
that is, hath made me obediently attentive (but MAURER, "hath informed me of my duty"), as a
servant to his master (compare
with Php 2:7;
Isa 42:1; 49:3, 6; 52:13; 53:11;
not rebellious--but, on the contrary, most willing to do the Father's
will in proclaiming and procuring salvation for man, at the cost of His
6. smiters--with scourges and with the open hand
(Mt 27:26; 26:27;
To "pluck the hair" is the highest insult that can be offered an
"I gave" implies the voluntary nature of His sufferings; His example
corresponds to His precept
spitting--To spit in another's presence is an insult in the East, much
more on one; most of all in the face
7. Sample of His not being "discouraged"
(Isa 42:4; 49:5).
set . . . face like . . . flint--set Myself resolutely, not to be
daunted from My work of love by shame or suffering
(Eze 3:8, 9).
The believer, by virtue of his oneness with Christ, uses the same
But "justify" in His case, is God's judicial acceptance and
vindication of Him on the ground of His own righteousness
with which compare
in their case, on the ground of His righteousness and
meritorious death imputed to them
stand together--in judgment, to try the issue.
adversary--literally, "master of my cause," that is, who has real
ground of accusation against me, so that he can demand judgment to be
given in his favor (compare
Zec 3:1, &c.
9. (Compare "deal," or "proper,"
as a garment--
(Isa 51:6, 8;
A leading constituent of wealth in the East is change of raiment, which
is always liable to the inroads of the moth; hence the frequency of the
image in Scripture.
10. Messiah exhorts the godly after His example
(Isa 49:4, 5; 42:4)
when in circumstances of trial ("darkness,"
to trust in the arm of Jehovah alone.
Who is, &c.--that is, Whosoever
obeyeth . . . servant--namely, Messiah. The godly "honor the Son, even
as they honor the Father"
(Mic 7:8, 9).
God never had a son who was not sometimes in the dark. For even Christ,
His only Son, cried out, "My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?"
light--rather, "splendor"; bright sunshine; for the servant of God
is never wholly without "light" [VITRINGA].
A godly man's way may be
dark, but his end shall be peace and light. A wicked man's way may be
bright, but his end shall be utter darkness
(Ps 112:4; 97:11; 37:24).
let him trust in the name of the Lord--as Messiah did
(Isa 50:8, 9).
11. In contrast to the godly
the wicked, in times of darkness, instead of trusting in God, trust in
themselves (kindle a light for themselves to walk by)
The image is continued from
"darkness"; human devices for salvation
(Pr 19:21; 16:9, 25)
are like the spark that goes out in an instant in darkness (compare
Job 18:6; 21:17,
with Ps 18:28).
sparks--not a steady light, but blazing sparks extinguished in a
walk--not a command, but implying that as surely as they
would do so, they should lie down in sorrow
In exact proportion to mystic Babylon's previous "glorifying" of
herself shall be her sorrow
(Mt 25:30; 8:12;