- Oppressors threatened, verse 1-3.
- Idolaters given up, verse 4, 5.
- The incorrigibleness of Israel, verse 6-11.
- They are still invited to repent, verse 12, 13.
Kine of Bashan - So Amos compares the mighty, wanton, and oppressive rulers of Israel, to those full-fed, strong, and wanton beasts which in the herds did push at, hurt, and disturb the weaker cattle.
By his holiness - By himself as he is the holy God. The days - Of famine, desolation and captivity. He - God by the Assyrian army will take you, as fish are taken with the hook. Your posterity - The children of these oppressors.
Ye - Kine of Bashan. Go out - Ye shall endeavour to make your escape. The breaches - Which the besieging enemy make in your walls, when Samaria is besieged. Before her - Taking the readiest way. The things - All the riches and ornaments of your palaces.
Come to Beth-el - A strong irony, giving them over as incorrigible. At Gilgal - Gilgal was a place where much idolatry was acted. Every morning - In the same irony God reproves their sins tho' they imitated the instituted worship at Jerusalem. Three years - God had Deuteronomy 14:28, commanded every third year that all the tithe of that year should be brought, and laid up in a publick store-house.
With leaven - As all the rest of your will-worship, so this also is against the express law, Leviticus 2:11. However, do so at your peril, try whether it will end in good. Proclaim - Publickly persuaded your people to voluntary sacrifices.
An I - The Lord who gave many blessings to win you to repentance, hath also tried what might be done by judgments. Cleanness of teeth - This is a description of famine.
When - At a season when your country most needed it. Upon one city - That you might see my hand in it, I gave rain to one city, and withheld it from the next; nay one part of the same field was watered and flourished: another part, dry and withered.
Not satisfied - Either that had not enough for them, or durst not part with it.
Increased - When they were most fruitful. Devoured - Eat up all, as is the manner of them.
Your horses - The riders being killed. The stink - So great slaughter hath been made in your camp that there were not sufficient to bury the slain.
Overthrew - By grievous and desolating judgments. As a fire-brand - Such of you as escaped were yet as fire-brands in the midst of the fire, 'till infinite mercy saved a remnant.
Therefore - In a more terrible manner will I now proceed against thee.
Declareth - Knows the thoughts of all men. The God of hosts - Whose sovereign power all creatures obey, and acts for or against us as he willeth. Let us humble ourselves before this God, and give all diligence to make him our God. For happy are the people whose God he is, and who have all this power engaged for them.