Thus described by Leo of Modena: the Jews take four pieces of parchment, and write with an ink made on purpose, and in square letters, these four passages, one on each piece: (1.) "Sanctify unto me all the first born," etc., Exodus 13:2-10. (2.) "And when the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites," etc., Exodus 13:11-16. (3.) "Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord," etc., Deuteronomy 6:4-9. (4.) "If you shall hearken diligently unto my commandments," etc., Deuteronomy 6:13-21. This they do in obedience to the words of Moses: "These commandments shall be for a sign unto thee upon thy hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes."
These four pieces are fastened together, and a square formed of them, on which the Hebrew letter Shin is written; then a little square of hard calf-skin is put at the top, out of which come two leathern strings. This square is put on the middle of the forehead, and the strings being girt about the head, are then brought before, and fall on the breast. It is called the Tephila of the head. The Most devout Jews put it on both at morning and noonday prayer; but it is generally worn only at morning prayer. See PHYLACTERIES.