A wine-cup (Genesis 40:11,21), various forms of which are found on Assyrian and Egyptian monuments. All Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold (1 Kings 10:: 21). The cups mentioned in the New Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and were sometimes of gold (Revelation 17:4).
The art of divining by means of a cup was practiced in Egypt (Genesis 44:2-17), and in the East generally.
The "cup of salvation" (Psalms 116:13) is the cup of thanksgiving for the great salvation. The "cup of consolation" (Jeremiah 16:7) refers to the custom of friends sending viands and wine to console relatives in mourning (Proverbs 31:6). In 1 Corinthians 10:16, the "cup of blessing" is contrasted with the "cup of devils" (1 Corinthians 10:21). The sacramental cup is the "cup of blessing," because of blessing pronounced over it (Matthew 26:27; Luke 22:17). The "portion of the cup" (Psalms 11:6; 16:5) denotes one's condition of life, prosperous or adverse. A "cup" is also a type of sensual allurement (Jeremiah 51:7; Proverbs 23:31; Revelation 17:4). We read also of the "cup of astonishment," the "cup of trembling," and the "cup of God's wrath" (Psalms 75:8; Isaiah 51:17; Jeremiah 25:15; Lamentations 4:21; Ezekiel 23:32; Revelation 16:19; Compare Matthew 26:39,42; John 18:11). The cup is also the symbol of death (Matthew 16:28; Mark 9:1; Hebrews 2:9).
These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain, copy freely.
Easton, Matthew George. "Entry for 'Cup'". "Easton's Bible Dictionary".