A person without a male parent, often rendered orphan by modern translations. Orphans are often mentioned with widows as representatives of the most helpless members of society (Exodus 22:22;
Psalms 146:9). In societies where the basic social unit was the clan headed by a father (the eldest male relative, perhaps a grandfather or uncle), those without a father or husband were social misfits without one to provide for their material needs and represent their interests in the court (Job 31:21). Life for the fatherless was harsh. Orphans were often forced to beg for food (Psalms 109:9-10). They suffered loss of their homes (Psalms 109:10), land rights (Proverbs 23:10), and livestock (Job 24:3). The fatherless were subject to acts of violence (Job 22:9), were treated as property to be gambled for (Job 6:27 TEV, NRSV, NAS, NIV), and were even murdered (Psalms 94:6).
God, however, has a special concern for orphans and widows (Deuteronomy 10:18;
Hosea 14:3) evidenced in the title “a father of the fatherless” (Psalms 68:5). Old Testament law provided for the material needs of orphans and widows who were to be fed from the third year's tithe (Deuteronomy 14:28-29;
Deuteronomy 26:12-13), from sheaves left forgotten in the fields (Deuteronomy 24:19), and from fruit God commanded to be left on the trees and vines (Deuteronomy 24:20-21). Orphans and widows were to be included in the celebrations of the worshiping community (Deuteronomy 16:11,Deuteronomy 16:14). God's people were repeatedly warned not to take advantage of orphans and widows (Exodus 22:22;
Isaiah 1:17). In the New Testament, James defined worship acceptable to God as meeting the needs of orphans and widows (Isaiah 1:27).
God's exiled people were described as orphans without home or inheritance (Lamentations 5:2-3). The Old Testament image of the orphan without a helper at the court perhaps forms the background for Jesus' promise that His disciples would not be left orphans (John 14:18, NAS, NIV, NRSV; “comfortless”, KJV; “bereft”, REB). They would not be defenseless since the Holy Spirit would act as their advocate (John 14:16). Paul described his painful separation from the Thessalonian Christians as being orphaned (1 Thessalonians 2:17, NRSV).